prescriptive, the term immaterial labour was coined by Lazzarato (), but became elements of the immaterial labour Hardt and Negri (ibid.) seek to. In this article (translated from Italian by Paul Colilli and Ed Emory), Maurizio Lazzarato sets out to describe the idea of “immaterial labor the. Maurizio Lazzarato Immaterial Labor – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Maurizio Lazzarato’s original essay on immaterial labor from.

Author: Mogor Vudozragore
Country: Montserrat
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Science
Published (Last): 2 August 2008
Pages: 387
PDF File Size: 1.1 Mb
ePub File Size: 17.48 Mb
ISBN: 938-9-22758-690-5
Downloads: 87241
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Daizahn

Lazzarato argues that immaterial labor occurs when companies co-opt a wider capacity for social labor “takes it on board and adapts it”8.

As one Harvard man once said: The concept of immaterial labor refers to two different aspects of labor. The old dichotomy between “mental and manual immsterial or between “material labor and immaterial labor,” risks failing to grasp the new nature of productive activity, which takes this separation on board and transforms it.

Main menu Skip to content. Views Read Edit View history. The process of social communication and its principal content, the production of subjectivity becomes here directly productive because in a certain way it “produces” production.

In this context of ad-hoc creative cooperation, the unit of analysis is not the factory but the project. As we have seen, immaterial labor forces us to question the classical definitions of work and workforce, because it results from a synthesis of different types of knowhow: The legitimation that the Schumpeterian entrepreneur found in his or her capacity for innovation has lost its foundation. This immaterial labor constitutes itself in forms that are immediately collective, and we might say that it exists labpur in the form of networks and flows.

The new slogan of Western societies is that we should all “become subjects”. From these considerations there emerge two principal consequences. Lazzarsto is suggested that in order to explain the phenomena of communication and the new dimensions of organization one should introduce not only cooperation and intensity of labor, but also other analytic variables anthropological variables?

We can thus move against the old schools of thought to establish, decisively, the viewpoint of an “anthropo-sociology” that is constitutive.

Immaterial labor

As recent sociological analyses tell us, the more a product handled by the service sector is characterized as an immaterial product, the more it distances itself from the model of industrial organization of the relationship between production and consumption. In today’s large imaterial company, a worker’s work increasingly involves, at various levels, an ability to choose among different alternatives and thus a degree of responsibility regarding decision making.

I believe that an analysis of immaterial labor and a description of its organization can lead us beyond the presuppositions of business theory – whether in its neoclassical school or its systems theory school.


Over time, though, computer programming became more sophisticated.

The commodity produced by immaterial labor is information and cultural content that produces ideology and consumption is not consumption of products but consumption of information.

In the most general sense, The Information Age is the last significant phenomena and the last shaped step that societies has been reach in 20th century. It is not simply that intellectual labor has become subjected to the norms of capitalist production.

The management mandate to “become subjects of communication” threatens to be even more totalitarian than the earlier rigid division between mental and manual labor ideas and executionbecause capitalism seeks to involve even the worker’s personality and subjectivity within the production of value.

The success of this organizational process requires instruments of regulation, either voluntary or automatic. But how is the production process of social communication formed?

In fact, employers are extremely worried by the double problem this creates: Two diffrent aspects envisioned. The Autonomy of the Productive Synergies of Immaterial Labor Lazzarato argues that immaterial labor occurs when companies co-opt a wider capacity for social labor “takes it on board and adapts it”8. Today, with the new data available, we find the microeconomy in revolt against the macroeconomy, and the classical model is corroded by a new and irreducible anthropological reality.

In this article translated from Italian by Paul Colilli and Ed EmoryMaurizio Lazzarato sets out to describe the idea of ” immaterial labor First and foremost, we have here a discourse that is authoritarian: Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link.

Sharing a loaf of bread reduces the amount available for each; sharing knowledge only increases it.

Immaterial labor – Wikipedia

If from industry proper we move on to the “services” sector large banking services, insurance, and so forththe characteristics of the process I have described appear even more clearly.

Reception is thus, from this point of view, a creative act and an integrative part of the product. Content is available under Creative Commons Attribution 3. The history of technology is the history lazzaratto the invention of tools and techniques and is similar to other sides of the history of humanity. Political theories Labor studies Labour movement Autonomism Marxian economics.

In this context, the divide between production and consumption is reshaped into a new kind of relationship, where the activities of consumption and development in llazzarato tastes and immatterial opinion are themselves a form of immaterial labor.

The Cycle of Immaterial Prodution Lazzarato argues that role of communication is the key distinguishing feature between Fordism and post-Fordism. We arrive at a point where a collective learning process becomes the heart of productivity, because it is no longer a matter of finding different ways of composing or organizing already existing job functions, but of looking for new ones.


As one cannot weigh or measure in any other way the effect of prayer, a smile, praise, compliment or pat on the shoulder – nor disdain – we are prone to discard any such effect. Simmel, in effect, explains the function of “fashion” by means of the phenomenon of imitation or distinction as regulated and commanded by class relationships. One point which is open to te critisizm is that the old dictatonimies and articles may not able to meet the enough predictions and fall behind the lastest updates in technology and labour relations on a time that rapidly chaning which we live in.

Rather than ensuring as 19th century enterprises did the surveillance of labiur inner workings of the immateial process and the supervision of the markets of raw materials labor includedbusiness is focused on the terrain outside of the production process: Notify me of new comments via email.

A good prediction and summarization made within the differend aspects and varios dimensions. The fact that immaterial labor produces subjectivity and economic value at the same time demonstrates how capitalist production has invaded our lives and has broken down all the oppositions among economy, power, and knowledge. The “tone” is that of the people who were in executive command under Taylorization; all that has changed is the content.

In this phase, workers are expected to become “active subjects” in the coordination of the various functions of production, instead of being subjected to it as simple command. In brief, the term labour reformed by ages. It always leans more toward commercialization and financing than toward production.

Once this viewpoint comes to dominate within social produc – tion, we find that we have immaterixl interruption in the continuity of models of production. I want to demonstrate in particular how the process of valorization tends to be identified with the process of the production of social communication and how the two stages valorization and communication immediately have a social and territorial dimension.

Creativity and productivity in postindustrial societies reside, on the one hand, in the dialectic between the forms of life and values they produce and, on the other, in the activities of subjects that constitute them. This model reveals aspects that traditional economic lazzarqto tend to obscure and that, as I will show, constitute the “specific differences” of the post-Taylorist means of production. These ideological products are completely internal to the processes immatetial the formation of social communication; that is, they are at once the results and the prerequisites of these processes.